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Articles

2019


  • A. Arora, L. C. Phillips, P. Nukala, M. B. Hassine, A. A. Ünal, B. Dkhil, L. Balcells, O. Iglesias, A. Barthélémy, F. Kronast, M. Bibes, S. Valencia, Switching on superferromagnetism. Physical Review Materials. 3, 024403 (2019).
    Résumé : Electric-field control of magnetism has emerged as a potential approach for low-power consumption spintronics. Although recent results in multiferroic systems have shown the possibility to manipulate the magnetic state of magnetic materials deposited on ferroelectric substrates by means of electric fields, the resulting magnetic state is multidomain in nature. For real multiferroic devices to become a true single magnetic domain state, lower dimensionality is required. In this work, the authors show, for an assemble of iron nanograins deposited on top of a BaTiO${}_{3}$ substrate, that an electric field-induced strain is capable of switching on a collective long-range ferromagnetic order (superferromagnetism) on an otherwise zero-dimensional superparamagnetic nanoparticle system. The effect, observed slightly above room temperature, holds promise for the implementation of nanoscale multiferroic systems in spin-based storage and logic architectures operating at ambient conditions.

  • C. Cerqueira, J. Y. Qin, H. Dang, A. Djeffal, J. - C. Le Breton, M. Hehn, J. - C. Rojas-Sanchez, X. Devaux, S. Suire, S. Migot, P. Schieffer, J. G. Mussot, P. Łaczkowski, A. Anane, S. Petit-Watelot, M. Stoffel, S. Mangin, Z. Liu, B. W. Cheng, X. F. Han, H. Jaffrès, J. - M. George, Y. Lu, Evidence of Pure Spin-Current Generated by Spin Pumping in Interface-Localized States in Hybrid Metal–Silicon–Metal Vertical Structures. Nano Letters. 19, 90 (2019).
    Résumé : Evidence of Pure Spin-Current Generated by Spin Pumping in Interface-Localized States in Hybrid Metal–Silicon–Metal Vertical Structures

  • T. Devolder, D. Rontani, S. Petit-Watelot, K. Bouzehouane, S. Andrieu, J. Létang, M. - W. Yoo, J. - P. Adam, C. Chappert, S. Girod, V. Cros, M. Sciamanna, J. - V. Kim, Chaos in Magnetic Nanocontact Vortex Oscillators. Physical Review Letters. 123, 147701 (2019).
    Résumé : We present an experimental study of spin-torque driven vortex self-oscillations in magnetic nanocontacts. We find that, above a certain threshold in applied currents, the vortex gyration around the nanocontact is modulated by relaxation oscillations, which involve periodic reversals of the vortex core. This modulation leads to the appearance of commensurate but also, more interestingly here, incommensurate states, which are characterized by devil's staircases in the modulation frequency. We use frequency- and time-domain measurements together with advanced time-series analyses to provide experimental evidence of chaos in incommensurate states of vortex oscillations, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  • J. - Y. Duquesne, P. Rovillain, C. Hepburn, M. Eddrief, P. Atkinson, A. Anane, R. Ranchal, M. Marangolo, Surface-Acoustic-Wave Induced Ferromagnetic Resonance in Fe Thin Films and Magnetic Field Sensing. Physical Review Applied. 12, 024042 (2019).
    Résumé : Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are ubiquitous in sensor technology, their main benefits being sensitivity, amenability to remote control, and no need for an embedded energy source. The authors discuss magnetic sensors based on the resonant interaction between a surface acoustic wave and the magnetization of a thin ferromagnetic layer. This interaction can be switched on and off by tiny angular variation of the magnetic field, which could be useful to remotely monitor periodic motion, such as the rotation of a shaft. Using a simple model of magnetization dynamics accounting for the properties of the layer, they describe the salient properties of the SAW versus in-plane magnetic field.

  • M. Ernoult, J. Grollier, D. Querlioz, Using Memristors for Robust Local Learning of Hardware Restricted Boltzmann Machines. Scientific Reports. 9, 1851 (2019).
    Résumé : One of the biggest stakes in nanoelectronics today is to meet the needs of Artificial Intelligence by designing hardware neural networks which, by fusing computation and memory, process and learn from data with limited energy. For this purpose, memristive devices are excellent candidates to emulate synapses. A challenge, however, is to map existing learning algorithms onto a chip: for a physical implementation, a learning rule should ideally be tolerant to the typical intrinsic imperfections of such memristive devices, and local. Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM), for their local learning rule and inherent tolerance to stochasticity, comply with both of these constraints and constitute a highly attractive algorithm towards achieving memristor-based Deep Learning. On simulation grounds, this work gives insights into designing simple memristive devices programming protocols to train on chip Boltzmann Machines. Among other RBM-based neural networks, we advocate using a Discriminative RBM, with two hardware-oriented adaptations. We propose a pulse width selection scheme based on the sign of two successive weight updates, and show that it removes the constraint to precisely tune the initial programming pulse width as a hyperparameter. We also propose to evaluate the weight update requested by the algorithm across several samples and stochastic realizations. We show that this strategy brings a partial immunity against the most severe memristive device imperfections such as the non-linearity and the stochasticity of the conductance updates, as well as device-to-device variability.

  • A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, Spintronics, from giant magnetoresistance to magnetic skyrmions and topological insulators. Comptes Rendus Physique. 20, 817-831 (2019).
    Résumé : This article aims at giving a general presentation of spintronics, an important field of research developing today along many new directions in physic…

  • M. Galbiati, S. Tatay, S. M. - M. Dubois, F. Godel, R. Galceran, S. Mañas-Valero, M. Piquemal-Banci, A. Vecchiola, J. - C. Charlier, A. Forment-Aliaga, E. Coronado, B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, Path to Overcome Material and Fundamental Obstacles in Spin Valves Based on MoS2 and Other Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides. Physical Review Applied. 12, 044022 (2019).
    Résumé : The recent introduction of two-dimensional materials into magnetic tunnel junctions (2D MTJs) offers very promising properties for spintronics, such as atomically defined interfaces, spin filtering, perpendicular anisotropy, and modulation of spin-orbit torque. Nevertheless, the difficulty of integrating exfoliated 2D materials into spintronic devices has limited exploration. Here the authors find a fabrication process leading to superior performance in MTJs based on transition-metal dichalcogenides, and further suggest a path to alleviate basic issues of technology and physics for 2D MTJs.

  • S. Hurand, A. Jouan, E. Lesne, G. Singh, C. Feuillet-Palma, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, J. Lesueur, N. Bergeal, Josephson-like dynamics of the superconducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Physical Review B. 99, 104515 (2019).
    Résumé : In this article, we show that the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the ${\mathrm{LaAlO}}_{3}/{\mathrm{SrTiO}}_{3}$ interface behaves as a Josephson junction array. In particular, it exhibits a stochastic switching of the superconducting critical current, which qualitatively follows the dynamics of the resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction model. The switching current distribution (SCD) has been measured as a function of temperature and back-gate voltage. At low temperatures a clear saturation of the standard deviation of the SCD is observed, possibly indicating the presence of a macroscopic quantum tunneling regime with phase diffusion. Through the gate voltage we modify the damping of the array and compare it to artificial arrays of junctions.

  • L. - M. Kern, R. Galceran, V. Zatko, M. Galbiati, F. Godel, D. Perconte, F. Bouamrane, E. Gaufrès, A. Loiseau, P. Brus, O. Bezencenet, M. - B. Martin, B. Servet, F. Petroff, B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, Atomic layer deposition of a MgO barrier for a passivated black phosphorus spintronics platform. Applied Physics Letters. 114, 053107 (2019).
    Résumé : We demonstrate a stabilized black phosphorus (BP) 2D platform thanks to an ultrathin MgO barrier, as required for spintronic device integration. The in-situ MgO layer deposition is achieved by using a large-scale atomic layer deposition process with high nucleation density. Raman spectroscopy studies show that this layer protects the BP from degradation in ambient conditions, unlocking in particular the possibility to carry out usual lithographic fabrication steps. The resulting MgO/BP stack is then integrated in a device and probed electrically, confirming the tunnel properties of the ultrathin MgO contacts. We believe that this demonstration of a BP material platform passivated with a functional MgO tunnel barrier provides a promising perspective for BP spin transport devices.

  • P. Laczkowski, M. Cosset-Cheneau, W. Savero-Torres, V. T. Pham, G. Zahnd, H. Jaffrès, N. Reyren, J. - C. Rojas-Sànchez, A. Marty, L. Vila, J. - M. George, J. - P. Attané, Spin-dependent transport characterization in metallic lateral spin valves using one-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling. Physical Review B. 99, 134436 (2019).
    Résumé : We present the analysis of the spin signals obtained in NiFe based metallic lateral spin valves. We exploit the spin-dependent diffusive equations in both the conventional one-dimensional (1D) analytic modeling and in 3D finite element method simulations. These approaches are used for extracting the spin diffusion length and the effective spin polarization in Py/Al, Py/Cu, and Py/Au based lateral nanostructures at both 300 K and 77 K. Both the analytic modeling and 3D finite element method simulations give consistent results. The combination of these models provides a powerful tool for reliable spin transport characterization in all metallic spin valves and gives an insight into the spin/charge current and spin accumulations 3D distributions in these devices. We provide the necessary ingredients to develop the 3D finite element modeling of diffusive spin transport.

  • Y. Li, V. V. Naletov, O. Klein, J. L. Prieto, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, P. Bortolotti, A. Anane, C. Serpico, G. de Loubens, Nutation Spectroscopy of a Nanomagnet Driven into Deeply Nonlinear Ferromagnetic Resonance. Physical Review X. 9, 041036 (2019).
    Résumé : Magnetization precession in ferromagnetic media remains coherent at remarkably high precession angles, an important insight for reliable control of nanomagnetic devices.

  • J. Létang, S. Petit-Watelot, M. - Y. Yoo, T. Devolder, K. Bouzehouane, V. Cros, J. - V. Kim, Modulation and phase-locking in nanocontact vortex oscillators. Physical Review B. 100, 144414 (2019).
    Résumé : We have conducted experiments to probe how the dynamics of nanocontact vortex oscillators can be modulated by an external signal. We explore the phase-locking properties in both the commensurate and chaotic regimes, where chaos appears to impede phase-locking while a more standard behavior is seen in the commensurate phase. These different regimes correspond to how the periodicity of the vortex core reversal relates to the frequency of core gyration around the nanocontact; a commensurate phase appears when the reversal rate is an integer fraction of the gyration frequency, while a chaotic state appears when this ratio is irrational. External modulation where the power spectral density exhibits rich features appears due to the modulation between the external source frequency, gyration frequency, and core-reversal frequency. We explain these features with first- or second-order modulation between the three frequencies. Phase-locking is also visible between the external source frequency and internal vortex modes (gyration and core-reversal modes).

  • D. Marković, N. Leroux, M. Riou, F. Abreu Araujo, J. Torrejon, D. Querlioz, A. Fukushima, S. Yuasa, J. Trastoy, P. Bortolotti, J. Grollier, Reservoir computing with the frequency, phase, and amplitude of spin-torque nano-oscillators. Applied Physics Letters. 114, 012409 (2019).
    Résumé : Spin-torque nano-oscillators can emulate neurons at the nanoscale. Recent works show that the non-linearity of their oscillation amplitude can be leveraged to achieve waveform classification for an input signal encoded in the amplitude of the input voltage. Here, we show that the frequency and phase of the oscillator can also be used to recognize waveforms. For this purpose, we phase-lock the oscillator to the input waveform, which carries information in its modulated frequency. In this way, we considerably decrease the amplitude, phase, and frequency noise. We show that this method allows classifying sine and square waveforms with an accuracy above 99% when decoding the output from the oscillator amplitude, phase, or frequency. We find that recognition rates are directly related to the noise and non-linearity of each variable. These results prove that spin-torque nano-oscillators offer an interesting platform to implement different computing schemes leveraging their rich dynamical features.

  • R. Matsumoto, S. Lequeux, H. Imamura, J. Grollier, Chaos and Relaxation Oscillations in Spin-Torque Windmill Spiking Oscillators. Physical Review Applied. 11, 044093 (2019).
    Résumé : Spintronic neurons that emit sharp voltage spikes are needed for neural-network hardware, for fast data processing with low power consumption. Conventional spintronic neurons, $i.e.$ spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), emit sinusoidal waveforms, though. The authors suggest how to imitate neuron spiking in STNOs in which both magnetic layers are free and thin enough to be switched by current. Simulations show that the chaotic behavior of these frequency-tunable devices can be adjusted by the magnetic stack and current. The proposed spintronic relaxation oscillator is a promising building block for hardware neuromorphic chips, leveraging nonlinear dynamics for computing.

  • M. Riou, J. Torrejon, B. Garitaine, F. A. Araujo, P. Bortolotti, V. Cros, S. Tsunegi, K. Yakushiji, A. Fukushima, H. Kubota, S. Yuasa, D. Querlioz, M. D. Stiles, J. Grollier, Temporal Pattern Recognition with Delayed-Feedback Spin-Torque Nano-Oscillators. Physical Review Applied. 12, 024049 (2019).
    Résumé : The recent demonstration of neuromorphic computing with spin-torque nano-oscillators points to substantial energy-saving in data analysis. However, the limited intrinsic memory of these devices (much less than a microsecond) limits their utility for analyzing temporal sequences. Here the authors overcome the short memory of a spin-torque oscillator by using a feedback loop with a delay of 1 $\ensuremath{\mu}$s, reducing the error rate during temporal-pattern classification by 99%. In addition, they determine optimal operating point of the oscillator, in terms of the current and magnetic field, to take advantage of this memory for recognition tasks.

  • J. - C. Rojas-Sánchez, A. Fert, Compared Efficiencies of Conversions between Charge and Spin Current by Spin-Orbit Interactions in Two- and Three-Dimensional Systems. Physical Review Applied. 11, 054049 (2019).
    Résumé : Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as topological insulators (TIs) are promising components for the design of spintronic devices, and this work offers a way to quantify their advantage. This article presents a study of the conversions between charge and spin currents based on the regular and inverse spin Hall effects in heavy metals, and based on the regular and inverse Edelstein effects in a 2D electron gas. The authors propose an approach for comparing the efficiency of conversion in 3D and 2D systems; this comparison is not straightforward, as those different physical effects are responsible at different dimensionalities. Spoiler: TIs turn out to be far more effective converters.

  • V. Rubio-Giménez, C. Bartual-Murgui, M. Galbiati, A. Núñez-López, J. Castells-Gil, B. Quinard, P. Seneor, E. Otero, P. Ohresser, A. Cantarero, E. Coronado, J. Antonio Real, R. Mattana, S. Tatay, C. Martí-Gastaldo, Effect of nanostructuration on the spin crossover transition in crystalline ultrathin films. Chemical Science. 10, 4038-4047 (2019).

  • D. Sando, F. Appert, S. R. Burns, Q. Zhang, Y. Gallais, A. Sacuto, M. Cazayous, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, C. Carrétéro, J. M. L. Breton, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, J. Juraszek, V. Nagarajan, Influence of flexoelectricity on the spin cycloid in (110)-oriented BiFeO3 films. Physical Review Materials. 3, 104404 (2019).
    Résumé : The influence of film orientation, strain relaxation, and flexoelectric fields on the stability of the spin cycloid in (110)-oriented $\mathrm{BiFe}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}$ epitaxial films grown on $\mathrm{LaAl}{\mathrm{O}}_{3}$ substrates is investigated. By means of advanced x-ray-diffraction techniques, we show that thinner films have very large strain gradients which give rise to high flexoelectric fields. Using low-energy Raman spectroscopy and conversion electron M\"ossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) we show that films up to 53 nm thick possess collinear antiferromagnetic order, with no cycloidal modulation. This suppression of the cycloid is proposed to be from strain and strain-gradient-induced flexoelectric fields. On the other hand, films thicker than 90 nm show a complex spin texture consistent with two separate cycloids, likely with different propagation directions. Interestingly, CEMS analysis suggests that the two cycloids have the same spin rotation plane. The multiple cycloids are suggested to arise from different ferroelastic domains (in turn influenced by twinning in the substrate) with different strain relaxation behaviors. These results offer insight into the factors that influence cycloid stability in the less common (110) film orientation and have implications for future magnonic devices.

  • D. Sando, F. Appert, B. Xu, O. Paull, S. R. Burns, C. Carrétéro, B. Dupé, V. Garcia, Y. Gallais, A. Sacuto, M. Cazayous, B. Dkhil, J. - M. Le Breton, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, L. Bellaiche, V. Nagarajan, J. Juraszek, A magnetic phase diagram for nanoscale epitaxial BiFeO3 films. Applied Physics Reviews. 6, 041404 (2019).
    Résumé : BiFeO3 thin films have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their potential application in low-energy spintronic and magnonic devices. BiFeO3 possesses an intricate magnetic structure, characterized by a spin cycloid with period ∼62 nm that governs the functional magnonic response, and which can be modulated or even destroyed by strain, magnetic and electric fields, or chemical doping. The literature on (110)-oriented BiFeO3 films is not explicit in defining the conditions under which this cycloid persists, as its presence depends on synthesis method and thin-film boundary conditions, especially in the sub-100 nm thickness regime. This report aims to end “trial and error” approaches in determining the conditions under which this cycloid and its associated functional magnonic response exist. We show that in specific crystallographic orientations of epitaxial BiFeO3, an unexplored strain parameter—the distortion in the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell—significantly influences the spin structure. Combining Mössbauer spectroscopy and low-energy Raman spectroscopy with first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian calculations, we show that both average strain and this distortion destroy the cycloid. For films grown on (110)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates, if the BiFeO3 lattice parameters a and b differ by more than about 1.2%, the cycloid is destabilized, resulting in a pseudocollinear magnetic order ground state. We are thereby able to construct a phase diagram of the spin structure for nanoscale epitaxial BiFeO3 films, which aims to resolve long-standing literature inconsistencies and provide powerful guidelines for the design of future magnonic and spintronic devices.BiFeO3 thin films have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their potential application in low-energy spintronic and magnonic devices. BiFeO3 possesses an intricate magnetic structure, characterized by a spin cycloid with period ∼62 nm that governs the functional magnonic response, and which can be modulated or even destroyed by strain, magnetic and electric fields, or chemical doping. The literature on (110)-oriented BiFeO3 films is not explicit in defining the conditions under which this cycloid persists, as its presence depends on synthesis method and thin-film boundary conditions, especially in the sub-100 nm thickness regime. This report aims to end “trial and error” approaches in determining the conditions under which this cycloid and its associated functional magnonic response exist. We show that in specific crystallographic orientations of epitaxial BiFeO3, an unexplored strain parameter—the distortion in the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell—significantly influences the spin structure...
  • J. Tornos, F. Gallego, S. Valencia, Y. H. Liu, V. Rouco, V. Lauter, R. Abrudan, C. Luo, H. Ryll, Q. Wang, D. Hernandez-Martin, G. Orfila, M. Cabero, F. Cuellar, D. Arias, F. J. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, F. Radu, T. R. Charlton, A. Rivera-Calzada, Z. Sefrioui, S. G. E. te Velthuis, C. Leon, J. Santamaria, Ferroelectric Control of Interface Spin Filtering in Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions. Physical Review Letters. 122, 037601 (2019).
    Résumé : The electronic reconstruction occurring at oxide interfaces may be the source of interesting device concepts for future oxide electronics. Among oxide devices, multiferroic tunnel junctions are being actively investigated as they offer the possibility to modulate the junction current by independently controlling the switching of the magnetization of the electrodes and of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In this Letter, we show that the spin reconstruction at the interfaces of a ${\mathrm{La}}_{0.7}{\mathrm{Sr}}_{0.3}{\mathrm{MnO}}_{3}/{\mathrm{BaTiO}}_{3}/{\mathrm{La}}_{0.7}{\mathrm{Sr}}_{0.3}{\mathrm{MnO}}_{3}$ multiferroic tunnel junction is the origin of a spin filtering functionality that can be turned on and off by reversing the ferroelectric polarization. The ferroelectrically controlled interface spin filter enables a giant electrical modulation of the tunneling magnetoresistance between values of 10% and 1000%, which could inspire device concepts in oxides-based low dissipation spintronics.

  • J. Varignon, J. Santamaria, M. Bibes, Electrically Switchable and Tunable Rashba-Type Spin Splitting in Covalent Perovskite Oxides. Physical Review Letters. 122, 116401 (2019).
    Résumé : In transition-metal perovskites ($AB{\mathrm{O}}_{3}$) most physical properties are tunable by structural parameters such as the rotation of the $B{\mathrm{O}}_{6}$ octahedra. Examples include the N\'eel temperature of orthoferrites, the conductivity of mixed-valence manganites, or the band gap of rare-earth scandates. Since oxides often hold large internal electric dipoles and can accommodate heavy elements, they also emerge as prime candidates to display Rashba spin-orbit coupling, through which charge and spin currents may be efficiently interconverted. However, despite a few experimental reports in ${\mathrm{SrTiO}}_{3}$-based interface systems, the Rashba interaction has been little studied in these materials, and its interplay with structural distortions remains unknown. In this Letter, we identify a bismuth-based perovskite with a large, electrically switchable Rashba interaction whose amplitude can be controlled by both the ferroelectric polarization and the breathing mode of oxygen octahedra. This particular structural parameter arises from the strongly covalent nature of the Bi-O bonds, reminiscent of the situation in perovskite nickelates. Our results not only provide novel strategies to craft agile spin-charge converters but also highlight the relevance of covalence as a powerful handle to design emerging properties in complex oxides.

  • D. - C. Vaz, P. Noël, A. Johansson, B. Göbel, F. Y. Bruno, G. Singh, S. McKeown-Walker, F. Trier, L. - M. Vicente-Arche, A. Sander, S. Valencia, P. Bruneel, M. Vivek, M. Gabay, N. Bergeal, F. Baumberger, H. Okuno, A. Barthélémy, A. Fert, L. Vila, I. Mertig, J. - P. Attane, M. Bibes, Mapping spin–charge conversion to the band structure in a topological oxide two-dimensional electron gas. Nature Materials. 18, 1187-1193 (2019).
    Résumé : A very large spin-to-charge conversion arising from a combination of the Rashba effect and topologically non-trivial states is realized at the interface of strontium titanate and aluminium, with implications for the role of topology in memory and transistor designs.

  • L. Vistoli, W. Wang, A. Sander, Q. Zhu, B. Casals, R. Cichelero, A. Barthélémy, S. Fusil, G. Herranz, S. Valencia, R. Abrudan, E. Weschke, K. Nakazawa, H. Kohno, J. Santamaria, W. Wu, V. Garcia, M. Bibes, Giant topological Hall effect in correlated oxide thin films. Nature Physics. 15, 67 (2019).
    Résumé : A strong Hall effect is observed in a material with spin textures and strong electron correlations. This hints that correlation effects can amplify real-space topological spin transport.

  • S. Wittrock, S. Tsunegi, K. Yakushiji, A. Fukushima, H. Kubota, P. Bortolotti, U. Ebels, S. Yuasa, G. Cibiel, S. Galliou, E. Rubiola, V. Cros, Low offset frequency 1/f flicker noise in spin-torque vortex oscillators. Physical Review B. 99, 235135 (2019).
    Résumé : Low-frequency noise close to the carrier remains little explored in spin-torque nano-oscillators. However, it is crucial to investigate as it limits the oscillator's frequency stability. This work addresses the low offset frequency flicker noise of a spin-torque vortex oscillator in the regime of large-amplitude steady oscillations. We first phenomenologically expand the nonlinear auto-oscillator theory, aiming to reveal the properties of this noise. We then present a thorough experimental study of the oscillator's $1/f$ flicker noise and discuss the results based on the theoretical predictions. Thereby, we connect the oscillator's nonlinear dynamics with the concept of flicker noise and furthermore refer to the influence of a standard $1/f$ noise description based on the Hooge formula, taking into account the nonconstant magnetic oscillation volume, which contributes to the magnetoresistance.

2018


  • R. Aeschlimann, D. Preziosi, P. Scheiderer, M. Sing, S. Valencia, J. Santamaria, C. Luo, H. Ryll, F. Radu, R. Claessen, C. Piamonteze, M. Bibes, A Living‐Dead Magnetic Layer at the Surface of Ferrimagnetic DyTiO3 Thin Films. Advanced Materials. 30, 1707489 (2018).

  • M. Alouini, J. Frougier, A. Joly, G. Baili, D. Dolfi, J. - M. George, VSPIN: a new model relying on the vectorial description of the laser field for predicting the polarization dynamics of spin-injected V(e)CSELs. Optics Express. 26, 6739-6757 (2018).
    Résumé : A new vectorial model (VSPIN) based on the Jones formalism is proposed to describe the polarization dynamics of spin injected V(e)CSELs. This general modelling framework accounts for spin injection effects as a gain circular dichroism in the active medium and provides guidelines for developing functional spin-controlled lasers. We investigate the detrimental role of phase anisotropy on polarization switching and show that it can be overcome by preparing the laser cavity to achieve efficient polarization switching under low effective spin injection. The VSPIN model predictions have been confirmed experimentally and explain the polarization behavior of spin-VCSELs reported in the literature.

  • Q. Barbedienne, J. Varignon, N. Reyren, A. Marty, C. Vergnaud, M. Jamet, C. Gomez-Carbonell, A. Lemaître, P. le Fèvre, F. Bertran, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, H. Jaffrès, J. - M. George, A. Fert, Angular-resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and transport studies of the elemental topological insulator a-Sn. Physical Review B. 98, 195445 (2018).
    Résumé : Gray tin, also known as $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-Sn, can be turned into a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) by strain and finite-size effects. Such room-temperature 3D-TI is peculiarly interesting for spintronics due to the spin-momentum locking along the Dirac cone (linear dispersion) of the surface states. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been used to investigate the dispersion close to the Fermi level in thin (001)-oriented epitaxially strained films of $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-Sn for different film thicknesses as well as for different capping layers (Al, ${\mathrm{AlO}}_{x}$, and MgO). Indeed a proper capping layer is necessary to be able to use $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-Sn surface states for spintronic applications. In contrast with free surfaces or surfaces coated with Ag, coating the $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-Sn surface with Al or ${\mathrm{AlO}}_{x}$ leads to a drop in the Fermi level below the Dirac point, and an important consequence for electronic transport is the presence of bulk states at the Fermi level. $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-Sn films coated by ${\mathrm{AlO}}_{x}$ are studied by electrical magnetotransport: Despite magnetotransport properties of the bulk electronic states of the ${\mathrm{\ensuremath{\Gamma}}}_{8}$ band playing an important role as suggested by ab initio calculations, there is clear evidence of surface states revealed by Shubnikov--de Haas oscillations corresponding to the ARPES observation.

  • S. Boyn, A. Chanthbouala, S. Girod, C. Carrétéro, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, J. Grollier, S. Fusil, V. Garcia, Real-time switching dynamics of ferroelectric tunnel junctions under single-shot voltage pulses. Applied Physics Letters. 113, 232902 (2018).
    Résumé : In ferroelectric memory devices, information is stored within the polarization direction whose reversal usually occurs by the nucleation and propagation of domains. In ultrathin ferroelectrics, ultrafast dynamics may be achieved by nucleation-limited switching, avoiding the inherently speed-limited propagation of domain walls. Here, we investigate polarization reversal dynamics in ultrathin ferroelectric films by transient current measurements. Thanks to the tunnel electroresistance, the start of polarization reversal induces sharp variations of the transmitted current under voltage pulses. These single-shot measurements show extremely fast switching with durations down to 3 ns that is only limited by the current device geometry. While the OFF-to-ON switching shows finite nucleation times that scale with the pulse amplitude, the ON-to-OFF switching speed cannot be detected under such rectangular pulses. Resorting to triangular pulse excitations allows us to detect the dynamics of this switching direction....

  • L. Bégon-Lours, V. Rouco, Q. Qiao, A. Sander, M. A. Roldán, R. Bernard, J. Trastoy, A. Crassous, E. Jacquet, K. Bouzehouane, M. Bibes, J. Santamaría, A. Barthélémy, M. Varela, J. - E. Villegas, Factors limiting ferroelectric field-effect doping in complex oxide heterostructures. Physical Review Materials. 2, 084405 (2018).
    Résumé : Ferroelectric field-effect doping has emerged as a powerful approach to manipulate the ground state of correlated oxides, opening the door to a different class of field-effect devices. However, this potential is not fully exploited so far, since the size of the field-effect doping is generally much smaller than expected. Here we study the limiting factors through magnetotransport and scanning transmission electron and piezoresponse force microscopy in ferroelectric/superconductor $(\mathrm{YB}{\mathrm{a}}_{2}\mathrm{C}{\mathrm{u}}_{3}{\mathrm{O}}_{7\text{\ensuremath{-}}\ensuremath{\delta}}/\mathrm{BiFe}{\mathrm{O}}_{3})$ heterostructures, a model system showing very strong field effects. Still, we find that they are limited in the first place by an incomplete ferroelectric switching. This can be explained by the existence of a preferential polarization direction set by the atomic terminations at the interface. More importantly, we also find that the field-effect carrier doping is accompanied by a strong modulation of the carrier mobility. Besides making quantification of field effects via Hall measurements not straightforward, this finding suggests that ferroelectric poling produces structural changes (e.g., charged defects or structural distortions) in the correlated oxide channel. Those findings have important consequences for the understanding of ferroelectric field effects and for the strategies to further enhance them.

  • F. Cadiz, A. Djeffal, D. Lagarde, A. Balocchi, B. Tao, B. Xu, S. Liang, M. Stoffel, X. Devaux, H. Jaffrès, J. - M. George, M. Hehn, S. Mangin, H. Carrere, X. Marie, T. Amand, X. Han, Z. Wang, B. Urbaszek, Y. Lu, P. Renucci, Electrical Initialization of Electron and Nuclear Spins in a Single Quantum Dot at Zero Magnetic Field. Nano Letters. 18, 2381 (2018).
    Résumé : Electrical Initialization of Electron and Nuclear Spins in a Single Quantum Dot at Zero Magnetic Field
    Mots-clés : Semiconductors and Spintronics.

  • S. - J. Carreira, M. - H. Aguirre, J. Briatico, E. Weschke, L. - B. Steren, Tuning the interfacial charge, orbital, and spin polarization properties in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/La1−xSrxMnO3 bilayers. Applied Physics Letters. 112, 032401 (2018).
    Résumé : The possibility of controlling the interfacial properties of artificial oxide heterostructures is still attracting researchers in the field of materials engineering. Here, we used surface sensitive techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the evolution of the surface spin-polarization and lattice strains across the interfaces between La0.66Sr0.33MnO3 thin films and low-doped manganites as capping layers. We have been able to fine tune the interfacial spin-polarization by changing the capping layer thickness and composition. The spin-polarization was found to be the highest at a critical capping thickness that depends on the Sr doping. We explain the non-trivial magnetic profile by the combined effect of two mechanisms: On the one hand, the extra carriers supplied by the low-doped manganites that tend to compensate the overdoped interface, favouring locally a ferromagnetic double-exchange coupling. On the other hand, the evolution from a tensile-strained structure of t...

  • J. - Y. Chauleau, W. Legrand, N. Reyren, D. Maccariello, S. Collin, H. Popescu, K. Bouzehouane, V. Cros, N. Jaouen, A. Fert, Chirality in Magnetic Multilayers Probed by the Symmetry and the Amplitude of Dichroism in X-Ray Resonant Magnetic Scattering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 037202 (2018).
    Résumé : Chirality in condensed matter has recently become a topic of the utmost importance because of its significant role in the understanding and mastering of a large variety of new fundamental physical mechanisms. Versatile experimental approaches, capable to reveal easily the exact winding of order parameters, are therefore essential. Here we report x-ray resonant magnetic scattering as a straightforward tool to reveal directly the properties of chiral magnetic systems. We show that it can straightforwardly and unambiguously determine the main characteristics of chiral magnetic distributions: i.e., its chiral nature, the quantitative winding sense (clockwise or counterclockwise), and its type, i.e., N\textbackslash'eel [cycloidal] or Bloch [helical]. This method is model independent, does not require a priori knowledge of the magnetic parameters, and can be applied to any system with magnetic domains ranging from a few nanometers (wavelength limited) to several microns. By using prototypical multilayers with tailored magnetic chiralities driven by spin-orbit-related effects at $\textbackslashmathrm{Co}\textbar\textbackslashmathrm{Pt}$ interfaces, we illustrate the strength of this method.
    Mots-clés : Spinorbitronics.

  • P. Chen, M. - N. Grisolia, H. J. Zhao, O. E. González-Vázquez, L. Bellaiche, M. Bibes, B. - G. Liu, J. Íñiguez, Energetics of oxygen-octahedra rotations in perovskite oxides from first principles. Physical Review B. 97, 024113 (2018).
    Résumé : From superconductivity to magnetoelectricity, perovskite oxides exhibit a wealth of appealing physical properties, often controlled by subtle structural details. Especially critical are the `tilt' distortion modes involving rotations of the oxygen octahedra that constitute the backbone of the perovskite lattice, which motivates today's interest in better understanding and tuning such tilts. Here, the authors present a thorough first-principles investigation of the energy landscape relevant to this matter, revealing the main competitors among different tilt modes as well as their trends across the perovskite family.

  • D. Crete, A. Sene, A. Labbe, E. Pawlowski Recoba, J. Kermorvant, Y. Lemaitre, B. Marcilhac, E. Parzy, E. Thiaudiere, C. Ulysse, Evaluation of Josephson Junction Parameter Dispersion Effects in Arrays of HTS SQUIDs. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. 28, 1602506 (2018).

  • S. Delprat, M. Galbiati, S. Tatay, B. Quinard, C. Barraud, F. Petroff, P. Seneor, R. Mattana, Molecular spintronics: the role of spin-dependent hybridization. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 51, 473001 (2018).
    Résumé : Spin-dependent hybridization at the ferromagnet/molecule interface has recently unveiled a promising new potential for spintronics. By projecting the spintronic properties (i.e. induced spin polarization) from a given ferromagnet electrode to the highly versatile and tailorable molecular layer, spin-dependent hybridization has opened up new opportunities to tailor spintronic device properties at the molecular scale. Here we focus on the potential and impact of this hybridization on spintronic devices. Depending on the coupling strength at the ferromagnet/molecule interface, the induced spin polarization can be enhanced or even inversed. In the first part of the paper, we introduce the concept of spin-dependent hybridization and, in particular, we show that it allows the magnetoresistive response of spintronic devices to be tuned. In the second part, we review the experimental evidence emphasizing spin-dependent hybridization in molecular layers and single molecules. In the last part, we highlight how this spin-dependent hybridization can play a key role in tunnelling magnetoresistance and tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance.

  • A. Djeffal, F. Cadiz, M. Stoffel, D. Lagarde, X. Gao, H. Jaffrès, X. Devaux, S. Migot, X. Marie, H. Rinnert, S. Mangin, J. - M. George, P. Renucci, Y. Lu, Co-Fe-B/MgO/Ge Spin Photodiode Operating at Telecommunication Wavelength with Zero Applied Magnetic Field. Physical Review Applied. 10, 044049 (2018).
    Résumé : The spin photodiode is essential for decoding circularly polarized light for future applications in optical telecommunication. However, most spin photodiodes only work with a large applied magnetic field, because of the in-plane magnetization of the spin detector. The authors investigate the growth and spin-polarized photocurrent of a perpendicularly magnetized Co-Fe-B/MgO spin detector on germanium. Without using any magnetic field, they obtain asymmetry in photocurrent helicity that is detectable at room temperature, for 1310-nm light. This work will impact the development of devices for the optical transport of spin information.
    Mots-clés : Semiconductors and Spintronics.

  • M. Evelt, L. Soumah, A. B. Rinkevich, S. O. Demokritov, A. Anane, V. Cros, J. B. Youssef, G. de Loubens, O. Klein, P. Bortolotti, V. E. Demidov, Emission of Coherent Propagating Magnons by Insulator-Based Spin-Orbit-Torque Oscillators. Physical Review Applied. 10, 041002 (2018).
    Résumé : The emerging field of $m\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}a\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}g\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}n\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}o\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}n\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}i\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}c\phantom{\rule{0}{0ex}}s$ utilizes propagating coherent magnons (collective excitations of electron spins) as carriers of information. Scaling down magnonic devices requires finding new approaches to the efficient excitation of magnons at nanoscale. This study demonstrates an approach to excite coherent GHz-frequency magnons in magnetic insulators by means of dc electric currents. The proposed method opens a route for implementing highly efficient nanomagnonic computing systems.

  • A. Fert, Peter Grünberg, a great name in the field of magnetism and 2007 laureate of Nobel Prize in Physics passed away on April 7, 2018. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 466, A1-A2 (2018).

  • A. Fert, Peter Grünberg (1939-2018). Nature. 557, 638 (2018).
    Résumé : Physicist who revolutionized data storage with work on magnetism in nanomaterials.

  • T. Fördös, K. Postava, H. Jaffrès, D. Q. To, J. Pištora, H. - J. Drouhin, Mueller matrix ellipsometric study of multilayer spin-VCSEL structures with local optical anisotropy. Applied Physics Letters. 112, 221106 (2018).
    Résumé : Spin-laser structures such as spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are semiconductor devices in which the radiative recombination processes involving spin-polarized carriers result in an emission of circularly polarized photons. Nevertheless, additional linear in-plane anisotropies in the cavity, e.g., interfacial and surface anisotropies, generally lead to preferential linearly polarized laser emission and to possible coupling between modes. We present Mueller matrix ellipsometric study of non-intentionally doped InGaAs/GaAsP laser structures devoted for optical pumping operations in the spectral range from 0.73 to 6.4 eV in order to disentangle surface and quantum wells contributions to the linear optical birefringence of the structures. The measurement of full 4 × 4 Mueller matrix for multiple angles of incidence and in-plane azimuthal angles in combination with proper parametrization of optical functions has been used for extraction of optical permittivity tensor components along [11...

  • M. Galbiati, A. Vecchiola, S. Mañas-Valero, J. Canet-Ferrer, R. Galceran, M. Piquemal-Banci, F. Godel, A. Forment-Aliaga, B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, E. Coronado, A Local Study of the Transport Mechanisms in MoS2 Layers for Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 10, 30017 (2018).
    Résumé : A Local Study of the Transport Mechanisms in MoS2 Layers for Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

  • J. Hu, B. Ernst, S. Tu, M. Kuveždić, A. Hamzić, E. Tafra, M. Basletić, Y. Zhang, A. Markou, C. Felser, A. Fert, W. Zhao, J. - P. Ansermet, H. Yu, Anomalous Hall and Nernst Effects in Co2TiSn and Co2Ti0.6V0.4Sn Heusler Thin Films. Physical Review Applied. 10, 044037 (2018).
    Résumé : The cobalt-based Heusler alloys are promising for spintronic applications, thanks to their high spin polarization and half-metallic character. This work investigates the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric effects in epitaxial Co${}_{2}$TiSn thin films, with and without V doping. The anomalous Nernst angle and anomalous Hall angle are both determined, and the relationship between these two important parameters is discussed. These experimental results are a step toward realizing spin-caloritronic devices for efficient on-chip energy harvesting of waste heat.

  • T. Huong Dang, D. Quang To, E. Erina, T. L. Hoai Nguyen, V. I. Safarov, H. Jaffrès, H. - J. Drouhin, dans Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (2018)vol. 459p. 37-42.
    Résumé : We report on the investigation of carrier tunneling asymmetry at ferromagnet-semiconductor junctions. By an analytical 2 x 2 spin model, we show that, when Dresselhaus interactions is included in the conduction band of III-V semiconductors (T-d or D-2d symmetry group), the electrons may undergo a difference of transmission vs. the sign of their incident parallel wavevector normal to the in-plane magnetization. The asymmetry of transmission also exists in the valence band of semiconductors owing to the inner atomic spin-orbit strength and free of asymmetric potentials in bulk or at interfaces. We present advanced multiband 14 x 14 and 30 x 30 k.p tunneling models together with tunneling transport perturbation calculations based on Green's function techniques corroborating these results. Those demonstrate that a tunneling spin-current normal to the interface can generate a transverse surface charge current, the so-called Anomalous Tunnel Hall Effect. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • A. Labbé, E. Parzy, E. Thiaudière, P. Massot, J. - M. Franconi, C. Ulysse, Y. Lemaître, B. Marcilhac, D. Crété, J. Kermorvant, Effects of flux pinning on the DC characteristics of meander-shaped superconducting quantum interference filters with flux concentrator. Journal of Applied Physics. 124, 214503 (2018).
    Résumé : Superconducting quantum interference filters, or SQIFs, are a promising class of highly sensitive magnetometers benefiting from a highly peaked and symmetric magnetic response at zero-input flux. They can be used in magnetometry, e.g., in wideband applications. A simple solution to increase further their sensitivity is to add a superconducting flux concentrator (SFC) to their design. Using the ion irradiation process, we designed a meander-shaped SQIF enhanced with an SFC. The SFC improved the SQIF transfer factor by a factor of 8.4. However, high temperature superconducting (HTSc) devices are vulnerable to flux pinning, which can severely hinder their response. On the one hand, HTSc technologies alleviate the burden of cryogenics. On the other hand, applications that use SFCs in noisy and unshielded environments will become possible only if a better understanding of how this flux impacts the device’s properties is achieved. We studied the relationship between the field present during the cooling process ...
    Mots-clés : Supra.

  • W. Legrand, J. - Y. Chauleau, D. Maccariello, N. Reyren, S. Collin, K. Bouzehouane, N. Jaouen, V. Cros, A. Fert, Hybrid chiral domain walls and skyrmions in magnetic multilayers. Science Advances. 4, eaat0415 (2018).
    Résumé : <p>Noncollinear spin textures in ferromagnetic ultrathin films are currently the subject of renewed interest since the discovery of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This antisymmetric exchange interaction selects a given chirality for the spin textures and allows stabilizing configurations with nontrivial topology including chiral domain walls (DWs) and magnetic skyrmions. Moreover, it has many crucial consequences on the dynamical properties of these topological structures. In recent years, the study of noncollinear spin textures has been extended from single ultrathin layers to magnetic multilayers with broken inversion symmetry. This extension of the structures in the vertical dimension allows room temperature stability and very efficient current-induced motion for both Néel DWs and skyrmions. We show how, in these multilayered systems, the interlayer interactions can actually lead to hybrid chiral magnetization arrangements. The described thickness-dependent reorientation of DWs is experimentally confirmed by studying demagnetized multilayers through circular dichroism in x-ray resonant magnetic scattering. We also demonstrate a simple yet reliable method for determining the magnitude of the DMI from static domain measurements even in the presence of these hybrid chiral structures by taking into account the actual profile of the DWs. The existence of these novel hybrid chiral textures has far-reaching implications on how to stabilize and manipulate DWs, as well as skymionic structures in magnetic multilayers.</p>

  • W. Legrand, N. Ronceray, N. Reyren, D. Maccariello, V. Cros, A. Fert, Modeling the Shape of Axisymmetric Skyrmions in Magnetic Multilayers. Physical Review Applied. 10, 064042 (2018).
    Résumé : Magnetic skyrmions (arrangements of spins featuring topological properties) are candidates to implement information bits in devices for combined data storage and logic processing. A prerequisite is the further optimization of the host magnetic multilayers, to obtain sufficiently stable and mobile skyrmions below 10 nm in size. This study develops an extensive model of skyrmions in magnetic multilayers, allowing analysis or prediction of their size, magnetic structure, and dynamical behavior. This model establishes guidelines for optimizing multilayer properties on the way to applications of magnetic skyrmions.

  • Y. Li, X. de Milly, O. Klein, V. Cros, J. Grollier, G. De Loubens, Selective control of vortex polarities by microwave field in two robustly synchronized spin-torque nano-oscillators. Applied Physics Letters. 112, 022405 (2018).
    Résumé : Manipulating operation states of coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), including their synchronization, is essential for applications such as complex oscillator networks. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate selective control of two coupled vortex STNOs through microwave-assisted switching of their vortex core polarities. First, the two oscillators are shown to synchronize due to the dipolar interaction in a broad frequency range tuned by an external biasing field. Coherent output is demonstrated along with strong linewidth reduction. Then, we show individual vortex polarity control of each oscillator, which leads to synchronization/desynchronization due to accompanied frequency shift. Our methods can be easily extended to multiple-element coupled oscillator networks.

  • Z. Liao, N. Gauquelin, R. J. Green, K. Müller-Caspary, I. Lobato, L. Li, S. V. Aert, J. Verbeeck, M. Huijben, M. - N. Grisolia, V. Rouco, R. El Hage, J. - E. Villegas, A. Mercy, M. Bibes, P. Ghosez, G. A. Sawatzky, G. Rijnders, G. Koster, Metal–insulator-transition engineering by modulation tilt-control in perovskite nickelates for room temperature optical switching. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115, 9515-9520 (2018).
    Résumé : <p>In transition metal perovskites ABO<sub>3</sub>, the physical properties are largely driven by the rotations of the BO<sub>6</sub> octahedra, which can be tuned in thin films through strain and dimensionality control. However, both approaches have fundamental and practical limitations due to discrete and indirect variations in bond angles, bond lengths, and film symmetry by using commercially available substrates. Here, we introduce modulation tilt control as an approach to tune the ground state of perovskite oxide thin films by acting explicitly on the oxygen octahedra rotation modes—that is, directly on the bond angles. By intercalating the prototype SmNiO<sub>3</sub> target material with a tilt-control layer, we cause the system to change the natural amplitude of a given rotation mode without affecting the interactions. In contrast to strain and dimensionality engineering, our method enables a continuous fine-tuning of the materials’ properties. This is achieved through two independent adjustable parameters: the nature of the tilt-control material (through its symmetry, elastic constants, and oxygen rotation angles), and the relative thicknesses of the target and tilt-control materials. As a result, a magnetic and electronic phase diagram can be obtained, normally only accessible by A-site element substitution, within the single SmNiO<sub>3</sub> compound. With this unique approach, we successfully adjusted the metal–insulator transition (MIT) to room temperature to fulfill the desired conditions for optical switching applications.</p>

  • L. Lόpez-Mir, C. Frontera, H. Aramberri, K. Bouzehouane, J. Cisneros-Fernández, B. Bozzo, L. Balcells, B. Martínez, Anisotropic sensor and memory device with a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier as the only magnetic element. Scientific Reports. 8, 861 (2018).
    Résumé : Multiple spin functionalities are probed on Pt/La2Co0.8Mn1.2O6/Nb:SrTiO3, a device composed by a ferromagnetic insulating barrier sandwiched between non-magnetic electrodes. Uniquely, La2Co0.8Mn1.2O6 thin films present strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of magnetocrystalline origin, property of major interest for spintronics. The junction has an estimated spin-filtering efficiency of 99.7% and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) values up to 30% at low temperatures. This remarkable angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is associated with the magnetic anisotropy whose origin lies in the large spin-orbit interaction of Co2+ which is additionally tuned by the strain of the crystal lattice. Furthermore, we found that the junction can operate as an electrically readable magnetic memory device. The findings of this work demonstrate that a single ferromagnetic insulating barrier with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is sufficient for realizing sensor and memory functionalities in a tunneling device based on TAMR.

  • D. Maccariello, W. Legrand, N. Reyren, K. Garcia, K. Bouzehouane, S. Collin, V. Cros, A. Fert, Electrical detection of single magnetic skyrmions in metallic multilayers at room temperature. Nature Nanotechnology. 13, 233 (2018).
    Résumé : <p>Single magnetic skyrmions are electrically detected in magnetic multilayers at room temperature, and their main contribution to the signal, which is enhanced for tracks approaching the size of the skyrmions, comes from the anomalous—rather than topological—Hall effect.</p>
    Mots-clés : Spinorbitronics.

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