# Articles

#### 2018

• S. - J. Carreira, M. - H. Aguirre, J. Briatico, E. Weschke, L. - B. Steren, Tuning the interfacial charge, orbital, and spin polarization properties in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/La1−xSrxMnO3 bilayers. Applied Physics Letters. 112, 032401 (2018).
Abstract: The possibility of controlling the interfacial properties of artificial oxide heterostructures is still attracting researchers in the field of materials engineering. Here, we used surface sensitive techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the evolution of the surface spin-polarization and lattice strains across the interfaces between La0.66Sr0.33MnO3 thin films and low-doped manganites as capping layers. We have been able to fine tune the interfacial spin-polarization by changing the capping layer thickness and composition. The spin-polarization was found to be the highest at a critical capping thickness that depends on the Sr doping. We explain the non-trivial magnetic profile by the combined effect of two mechanisms: On the one hand, the extra carriers supplied by the low-doped manganites that tend to compensate the overdoped interface, favouring locally a ferromagnetic double-exchange coupling. On the other hand, the evolution from a tensile-strained structure of t...

• J. - Y. Chauleau, W. Legrand, N. Reyren, D. Maccariello, S. Collin, H. Popescu, K. Bouzehouane, V. Cros, N. Jaouen, A. Fert, Chirality in Magnetic Multilayers Probed by the Symmetry and the Amplitude of Dichroism in X-Ray Resonant Magnetic Scattering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 037202 (2018).
Abstract: Chirality in condensed matter has recently become a topic of the utmost importance because of its significant role in the understanding and mastering of a large variety of new fundamental physical mechanisms. Versatile experimental approaches, capable to reveal easily the exact winding of order parameters, are therefore essential. Here we report x-ray resonant magnetic scattering as a straightforward tool to reveal directly the properties of chiral magnetic systems. We show that it can straightforwardly and unambiguously determine the main characteristics of chiral magnetic distributions: i.e., its chiral nature, the quantitative winding sense (clockwise or counterclockwise), and its type, i.e., N\textbackslash'eel [cycloidal] or Bloch [helical]. This method is model independent, does not require a priori knowledge of the magnetic parameters, and can be applied to any system with magnetic domains ranging from a few nanometers (wavelength limited) to several microns. By using prototypical multilayers with tailored magnetic chiralities driven by spin-orbit-related effects at $\textbackslashmathrm{Co}\textbar\textbackslashmathrm{Pt}$ interfaces, we illustrate the strength of this method.
Tags: Spinorbitronics.

• P. Chen, M. - N. Grisolia, H. J. Zhao, O. E. González-Vázquez, L. Bellaiche, M. Bibes, B. - G. Liu, J. Íñiguez, Energetics of oxygen-octahedra rotations in perovskite oxides from first principles. Physical Review B. 97, 024113 (2018).
Abstract: From superconductivity to magnetoelectricity, perovskite oxides exhibit a wealth of appealing physical properties, often controlled by subtle structural details. Especially critical are the `tilt' distortion modes involving rotations of the oxygen octahedra that constitute the backbone of the perovskite lattice, which motivates today's interest in better understanding and tuning such tilts. Here, the authors present a thorough first-principles investigation of the energy landscape relevant to this matter, revealing the main competitors among different tilt modes as well as their trends across the perovskite family.

• N. Kazuki, B. Manuel, K. Hiroshi, Topological Hall Effect from Strong to Weak Coupling. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan. 87, 033705 (2018).
Abstract: The topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons coupled to a noncoplanar spin texture has been studied so far for the strong- and weak-coupling regimes separately; the former in terms of the Berry phase and the latter by perturbation theory. In this letter, we present a unified treatment in terms of spin gauge field by considering not only the adiabatic (Berry phase) component of the gauge field but also the nonadiabatic component. While only the adiabatic contribution is important in the strong-coupling regime, it is completely canceled by a part of the nonadiabatic contribution in the weak-coupling regime, where the THE is governed by the remaining nonadiabatic terms. We found a new weak-coupling region that cannot be accessed by a simple perturbation theory, where the Hall conductivity is proportional to M, with 2M being the exchange splitting of the electron spectrum.

• Y. Li, X. de Milly, O. Klein, V. Cros, J. Grollier, G. De Loubens, Selective control of vortex polarities by microwave field in two robustly synchronized spin-torque nano-oscillators. Applied Physics Letters. 112, 022405 (2018).
Abstract: Manipulating operation states of coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), including their synchronization, is essential for applications such as complex oscillator networks. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate selective control of two coupled vortex STNOs through microwave-assisted switching of their vortex core polarities. First, the two oscillators are shown to synchronize due to the dipolar interaction in a broad frequency range tuned by an external biasing field. Coherent output is demonstrated along with strong linewidth reduction. Then, we show individual vortex polarity control of each oscillator, which leads to synchronization/desynchronization due to accompanied frequency shift. Our methods can be easily extended to multiple-element coupled oscillator networks.

• L. Lόpez-Mir, C. Frontera, H. Aramberri, K. Bouzehouane, J. Cisneros-Fernández, B. Bozzo, L. Balcells, B. Martínez, Anisotropic sensor and memory device with a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier as the only magnetic element. Scientific Reports. 8, 861 (2018).
Abstract: Multiple spin functionalities are probed on Pt/La2Co0.8Mn1.2O6/Nb:SrTiO3, a device composed by a ferromagnetic insulating barrier sandwiched between non-magnetic electrodes. Uniquely, La2Co0.8Mn1.2O6 thin films present strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of magnetocrystalline origin, property of major interest for spintronics. The junction has an estimated spin-filtering efficiency of 99.7% and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) values up to 30% at low temperatures. This remarkable angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is associated with the magnetic anisotropy whose origin lies in the large spin-orbit interaction of Co2+ which is additionally tuned by the strain of the crystal lattice. Furthermore, we found that the junction can operate as an electrically readable magnetic memory device. The findings of this work demonstrate that a single ferromagnetic insulating barrier with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is sufficient for realizing sensor and memory functionalities in a tunneling device based on TAMR.

• D. Maccariello, W. Legrand, N. Reyren, K. Garcia, K. Bouzehouane, S. Collin, V. Cros, A. Fert, Electrical detection of single magnetic skyrmions in metallic multilayers at room temperature. Nature Nanotechnology. 13, 233 (2018).
Abstract: <p>Single magnetic skyrmions are electrically detected in magnetic multilayers at room temperature, and their main contribution to the signal, which is enhanced for tracks approaching the size of the skyrmions, comes from the anomalous—rather than topological—Hall effect.</p>
Tags: Spinorbitronics.

• D. Perconte, F. A. Cuellar, C. Moreau-Luchaire, M. Piquemal-Banci, R. Galceran, P. - R. Kidambi, M. - B. Martin, S. Hofmann, R. Bernard, B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, J. - E. Villegas, Tunable Klein-like tunnelling of high-temperature superconducting pairs into graphene. Nature Physics. 14, 25 (2018).
Abstract: \textlessp\textgreaterProximity effects enable superconductivity to leak into normal metals. In graphene, a Klein-like tunnelling of superconducting pairs from a high-temperature superconductor allows the proximity effects to be tuned by electric fields.\textless/p\textgreater

• D. Sando, C. Carrétéro, M. - N. Grisolia, A. Barthélémy, V. Nagarajan, M. Bibes, Revisiting the Optical Band Gap in Epitaxial BiFeO3 Thin Films. Advanced Optical Materials. 6, 201700836 (2018).

• G. Singh, A. Jouan, L. Benfatto, F. Couëdo, P. Kumar, A. Dogra, R. C. Budhani, S. Caprara, M. Grilli, E. Lesne, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, C. Feuillet-Palma, J. Lesueur, N. Bergeal, Competition between electron pairing and phase coherence in superconducting interfaces. Nature Communications. 9, 407 (2018).
Abstract: <p>The nature of the doping dependent superconducting transition remains elusive for a two dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO<sub>3</sub>/SrTiO<sub>3</sub> interface. Here, Singh et al. report superfluid stiffness and the superconducting gap energy at such interface as a function of carrier density.</p>

• N. Thiery, A. Draveny, V. V. Naletov, L. Vila, J. - P. Attané, C. Beigné, G. de Loubens, M. Viret, N. Beaulieu, J. B. Youssef, V. E. Demidov, S. O. Demokritov, A. N. Slavin, V. S. Tiberkevich, A. Anane, P. Bortolotti, V. Cros, O. Klein, Nonlinear spin conductance of yttrium iron garnet thin films driven by large spin-orbit torque. Physical Review B. 97, 060409 (2018).
Abstract: We report high power spin transfer studies in open magnetic geometries by measuring the spin conductance between two nearby Pt wires deposited on top of an epitaxial yttrium iron garnet thin film. Spin transport is provided by propagating spin waves that are generated and detected by direct and inverse spin Hall effects. We observe a crossover in spin conductance from a linear transport dominated by exchange magnons (low current regime) to a nonlinear transport dominated by magnetostatic magnons (high current regime). The latter are low-damping magnetic excitations, located near the spectral bottom of the magnon manifold, with a sensitivity to the applied magnetic field. This picture is supported by microfocus Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy. Our findings could be used for the development of controllable spin conductors by variation of relatively weak magnetic fields.

• N. Thiery, V. V. Naletov, L. Vila, A. Marty, A. Brenac, J. - F. Jacquot, G. de Loubens, M. Viret, A. Anane, V. Cros, J. B. Youssef, N. Beaulieu, V. E. Demidov, B. Divinskiy, S. O. Demokritov, O. Klein, Electrical properties of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet ultrathin films at high temperatures. Physical Review B. 97, 064422 (2018).
Abstract: We report a study on the electrical properties of 19-nm-thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy on gadolinium gallium garnet single crystal. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high-temperature range [300,400] K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band gap of ${E}_{g}\ensuremath{\approx}2$ eV. It drops to values about $5\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{\ensuremath{\Omega}}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}\text{cm}$ at $T=400$ K, thus indicating that epitaxial YIG ultrathin films behave as large gap semiconductors. We also infer the Hall mobility, which is found to be positive ($p$ type) at 5 ${\mathrm{cm}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{V}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}\phantom{\rule{0.16em}{0ex}}{\mathrm{sec}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$ and almost independent of temperature. We discuss the consequence for nonlocal spin transport experiments performed on YIG at room temperature and demonstrate the existence of electrical offset voltages to be disentangled from pure spin effects.

• D. - C. Vaz, E. Lesne, A. Sander, H. Naganuma, E. Jacquet, J. Santamaria, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, Growth and Electrostatic/chemical Properties of Metal/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures. JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments), e56951-e56951 (2018).
Abstract: We fabricate metal/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures using a combination of pulsed laser deposition and in...

• M. Wang, W. Cai, K. Cao, J. Zhou, J. Wrona, S. Peng, H. Yang, J. Wei, W. Kang, Y. Zhang, J. Langer, B. Ocker, A. Fert, W. Zhao, Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance. Nature Communications. 9, 671 (2018).
Abstract: <p>Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance and low junction resistance are promising for the magnetic random access memories. Here the authors achieve the spin-transfer-torque switching in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with 249% tunnel magnetoresistance and low resistance-area product.</p>

#### 2017

• F. Abreu Araujo, L. Piraux, Spin-Transfer-Torque Driven Vortex Dynamics in Electrodeposited Nanowire Spin-Valves. SPIN. 07, 1740007 (2017).

• A. Agbelele, D. Sando, C. Toulouse, C. Paillard, R. - D. Johnson, R. Rüffer, A. - F. Popkov, C. Carrétéro, P. Rovillain, J. - M. Le Breton, B. Dkhil, M. Cazayous, Y. Gallais, M. - A. Méasson, A. Sacuto, P. Manuel, A. - K. Zvezdin, A. Barthélémy, J. Juraszek, M. Bibes, Strain and Magnetic Field Induced Spin‐Structure Transitions in Multiferroic BiFeO3. Advanced Materials. 29, 1602327 (2017).
Abstract: The magnetic‐field‐dependent spin ordering of strained BiFeO3 films is determined using nuclear resonant scattering and Raman spectroscopy. The critical field required to destroy the cycloidal modulation...

• P. Barate, S. - H. Liang, T. T. Zhang, J. Frougier, B. Xu, P. Schieffer, M. Vidal, H. Jaffrès, B. Lépine, S. Tricot, F. Cadiz, T. Garandel, J. - M. George, T. Amand, X. Devaux, M. Hehn, S. Mangin, B. Tao, X. F. Han, Z. - G. Wang, X. Marie, Y. Lu, P. Renucci, Bias Dependence of the Electrical Spin Injection into GaAs from Co-Fe-B/MgO Injectors with Different MgO Growth Processes. Phys. Rev. Applied. 8, 054027 (2017).
Abstract: In view of future spintronic and spin-optronic devices, such as spin light-emitting diodes and spin lasers, it is important to understand the dependence of electrical spin injection on bias in bipolar devices based on GaAs. Focusing on the efficiency of Co-Fe-B/MgO spin injectors, the authors investigate the influence of the MgO growth process on this bias dependence, using MgO tunnel barriers fabricated by different techniques. The bias dependence of spin injection efficiency, and the compromise between high intensity and high circular polarization of electroluminescence, depend strongly on the characteristics of the interface, which can be engineered by the growth process.
Tags: Semiconductors and Spintronics.

• S. Boyn, J. Grollier, G. Lecerf, B. Xu, N. Locatelli, S. Fusil, S. Girod, C. Carrétéro, K. Garcia, S. Xavier, J. Tomas, L. Bellaiche, M. Bibes, A. Barthélémy, S. Saïghi, V. Garcia, Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses. Nature Communications. 8, 14736 (2017).
Abstract: Accurate modelling of memristor dynamics is essential for the development of autonomous learning in artificial neural networks. Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of the polarization switching process in ferroelectric memristors, Boynet al.

• L. Bégon-Lours, V. Rouco, A. Sander, J. Trastoy, R. Bernard, E. Jacquet, K. Bouzehouane, S. Fusil, V. Garcia, A. Barthélémy, M. Bibes, J. Santamaría, J. - E. Villegas, High-Temperature-Superconducting Weak Link Defined by the Ferroelectric Field Effect. Phys. Rev. Applied. 7, 064015 (2017).
Abstract: Josephson junctions are the cornerstones of numerous applications, and fabricating them from high-temperature superconductors has received much attention in recent years. The authors exploit the local field-effect doping of a cuprate superconducting film by a ferroelectric overlayer, where domain structure is “written” at will using an atomic force microscope. The key advantage of this approach is that it creates devices that are planar and can be reconfigured by “rewriting” the ferroelectric.

• N. - B. Caballero, I. - F. Aguirre, L. - J. Albornoz, A. - B. Kolton, J. - C. Rojas-Sanchez, S. Collin, J. - M. George, R. - D. Pardo, V. Jeudy, S. Bustingorry, J. Curiale, Excess velocity of magnetic domain walls close to the depinning field. Phys. Rev. B. 96, 224422 (2017).
Abstract: Magnetic field driven domain wall velocities in [Co/Ni] based multilayers thin films have been measured using polar magneto-optic Kerr effect microscopy. The low field results are shown to be consistent with the universal creep regime of domain wall motion, characterized by a stretched exponential growth of the velocity with the inverse of the applied field. Approaching the depinning field from below results in an unexpected excess velocity with respect to the creep law. We analyze these results using scaling theory to show that this speeding up of domain wall motion can be interpreted as due to the increase of the size of the deterministic relaxation close to the depinning transition. We propose a phenomenological model to accurately fit the observed excess velocity and to obtain characteristic values for the depinning field ${H}_{d}$, the depinning temperature ${T}_{d}$, and the characteristic velocity scale ${v}_{0}$ for each sample.

• M. Cabero, K. Nagy, F. Gallego, A. Sander, M. Rio, F. A. Cuellar, J. Tornos, D. Hernandez-Martin, N. M. Nemes, F. Mompean, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Rivera-Calzada, Z. Sefrioui, N. Reyren, T. Feher, M. Varela, C. Leon, J. Santamaria, Modified magnetic anisotropy at LaCoO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 interfaces. APL Materials. 5, 096104 (2017).
Abstract: Controlling magnetic anisotropy is an important objective towards engineering novel magnetic device concepts in oxide electronics. In thin film manganites, magnetic anisotropy is weak and it is primarily determined by the substrate, through induced structural distortions resulting from epitaxial mismatch strain. On the other hand, in cobaltites, with a stronger spin orbit interaction, magnetic anisotropy is typically much stronger. In this paper, we show that interfacing La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) with an ultrathin LaCoO3 (LCO) layer drastically modifies the magnetic anisotropy of the manganite, making it independent of the substrate and closer to the magnetic isotropy characterizing its rhombohedral structure. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements evidence a tendency of manganite magnetic moments to point out-of-plane suggesting non collinear magnetic interactions at the interface. These results may be of interest for the design of oxide interfaces with tailored magnetic structures for new oxide devices.

• S. Cervera, M. Trassinelli, M. Marangolo, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Hidki, E. Jacquet, E. Lamour, A. Lévy, S. Macé, C. Prigent, J. - P. Rozet, S. Steydli, D. Vernhet, Modulating the phase transition temperature of giant magnetocaloric thin films by ion irradiation. Phys. Rev. Materials. 1, 065402 (2017).
Abstract: Magnetic refrigeration based on the magnetocaloric effect at room temperature is one of the most attractive alternatives to the current gas compression/expansion method routinely employed. Nevertheless, in giant magnetocaloric materials, optimal refrigeration is restricted to the narrow temperature window of the phase transition (${T}_{c}$). In this work, we present the possibility of varying this transition temperature in the same giant magnetocaloric material by ion irradiation. We demonstrate that the transition temperature of iron rhodium thin films can be tuned by the bombardment of ions of ${\textbackslashmathrm{Ne}}ˆ{5+}$ with varying fluences up to ${10}ˆ{14}$ ions ${\textbackslashmathrm{cm}}ˆ{\textbackslashensuremath{-}2}$, leading to optimal refrigeration over a large 270\textbackslashchar21{}380 K temperature window. The ${T}_{c}$ modification is found to be due to the ion-induced disorder and to the density of new pointlike defects. The variation of the phase transition temperature with the number of incident ions opens new perspectives in the conception of devices using giant magnetocaloric materials.

• J. - Y. Chauleau, E. Haltz, C. Carrétéro, S. Fusil, M. Viret, Multi-stimuli manipulation of antiferromagnetic domains assessed by second-harmonic imaging. Nature Materials. 16, 803–807 (2017).
Abstract: Sub-coercive electric fields and sub-picosecond light pulses are shown to enable low-power manipulation of antiferromagnetic domains in the multiferroic BiFeO3.

• M. Collet, O. Gladii, M. Evelt, V. Bessonov, L. Soumah, P. Bortolotti, S. O. Demokritov, Y. Henry, V. Cros, M. Bailleul, V. E. Demidov, A. Anane, Spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin YIG based waveguides. Applied Physics Letters. 110, 092408 (2017).
Abstract: Spin-wave propagation in microfabricated 20 nm thick, 2.5 μm wide Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) waveguides is studied using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy (PSWS) and phase resolved micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS) spectroscopy. We demonstrate that spin-wave propagation in 50 parallel waveguides is robust against microfabrication induced imperfections and extract spin-wave propagation parameters for the Damon-Eshbach configuration in a wide range of excitation frequencies. As expected from its low damping, YIG allows for the propagation of spin waves over long distances; the attenuation lengths is 25 μm at μ 0 H = 45 mT. Moreover, direct mapping of spin waves by μ-BLS allows us to reconstruct the spin-wave dispersion relation and to confirm the multi-mode propagation in the waveguides, glimpsed by propagating spin-wave spectroscopy.
Tags: Magnonics.

• M. Collet, R. Mattana, J. - B. Moussy, K. Ollefs, S. Collin, C. Deranlot, A. Anane, V. Cros, F. Petroff, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, Investigating magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces. Applied Physics Letters. 111, 202401 (2017).
Abstract: Spintronic devices based on pure spin currents have drawn a lot of attention during the last few years for low energy device design. One approach to generate pure spin currents is to combine a metallic or insulating ferromagnetic layer with a non-magnetic metallic layer with a large spin-orbit coupling. A recent controversy has arisen in the possible role of magnetic proximity effects at ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interfaces, which can hamper the understanding of pure spin current generation mechanisms. While magnetic proximity effects have been frequently observed at ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic interfaces, there are only a few studies on ferromagnetic insulator/non-magnetic interfaces. Regarding the use of ferromagnetic insulators, the focus has been mainly on yttrium iron garnet (YIG). However, investigation of induced magnetic moments at YIG/Pt interfaces has engendered contradictory results. Here, we propose to study insulating ferrites for which electronic and magnetic properties can be modulate...

• M. Collet, L. Soumah, P. Bortolotti, M. Munoz, V. Cros, A. Anane, Spin Seebeck effect in nanometer-thick YIG micro-fabricated strips. AIP Advances. 7, 055924 (2017).
Abstract: We have investigated the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) generated by current induced-heating in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet film (20 nm) covered by an 8 nm thick Pt layer. By passing current in the Pt layer, an out-of-plane temperature gradient is established that, in turn, generates an out-of-equilibrium magnons population. The resulting pure spin current is detected using the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) measured in the Pt electrode. A lock-in detection scheme is used to separate the SSE signal from other magneto-galvanic effect. Indeed, the SSE signal is obtained as the second harmonic voltage response, while spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is measured as the first harmonic response to the ac excitation current. Interestingly, the amplitude of the SSE in such thin YIG film is comparable to what has been reported for much thicker films.
Tags: Magnonics.

• O. Copie, J. Varignon, H. Rotella, G. Steciuk, P. Boullay, A. Pautrat, A. David, B. Mercey, P. Ghosez, W. Prellier, Chemical Strain Engineering of Magnetism in Oxide Thin Films. Advanced Materials. 29 (2017), doi:10.1002/adma.201604112.

• A. Cornia, P. Seneor, Spintronics: The molecular way. Nature Materials. 16, 505–506 (2017).
Abstract: Molecular spintronics is an interdisciplinary field at the interface between organic spintronics, molecular magnetism, molecular electronics and quantum computing, which is advancing fast and promises large technological payoffs.

• V. E. Demidov, S. Urazhdin, G. de Loubens, O. Klein, V. Cros, A. Anane, S. O. Demokritov, Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents. Physics Reports. 673, 1–31 (2017).
Tags: Magnonics.

• S. Deng, H. Butt, K. Jiang, B. Dlubak, P. - R. Kidambi, P. Seneor, S. Xavier, A. - K. Yetisen, Graphene nanoribbon based plasmonic Fresnel zone plate lenses. RSC Adv. 7, 16594–16601 (2017).
Abstract: A graphene-based metamaterial lens is theoretically proposed by combining plasmonic nanoribbons with Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) architecture to realize wavelength-selective and tunable lensing. The plasmonic FZP lens shows higher focal intensity and efficiency compared to conventional FZP. As compared with normal graphene FZP, the lensing effect of the plasmonic FZP can be enhanced by 83 times. When compared with Au thin film based FZP lenses, the graphene plasmonic lenses can achieve comparable lensing effects, but with a thinner geometry and with an additional advantage of being wavelength selective and tuneable. The analyses of selectivity and tunability of the plasmonic lens show that the plasmonic lens functions as a filter with broadband incident light or as a switch which can be turned on and off via changing the Fermi levels. The diffraction between neighboring graphene nanoribbons and the effect of the substrate on the lensing effect is also discussed. The plasmonic effect of the nanoribbons only contributes to the focal intensity without affecting the diffraction properties of Fresnel zone plate lenses such as focal lengths. This plasmonic FZP lens is an ideal combination of near and far field optics. However, the complex interaction of diffractions within and between the FZP rings could lead to a significant change of the lensing effect, which opens the possibility of creating innovative graphene metamaterial devices. The findings in this work can be used for developing wavelength-selective electro-optical applications operating in the infrared and terahertz ranges.

• O. d’Allivy Kelly, M. Collet, E. Jacquet, R. Mattana, F. Petroff, P. Bortolotti, V. Cros, A. Anane, F. Wilhelm, K. Ollefs, A. Rogalev, Magnetic Proximity Effect Free Spin Hall Magnetoresistance in YIG/Pd. SPIN. 07, 1740005 (2017).

• A. Fert, N. Reyren, V. Cros, Magnetic skyrmions: advances in physics and potential applications. Nature Reviews Materials. 2, 17031 (2017).
Abstract: Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected spin whirls that hold promise for applications because they can be controllably moved, created and annihilated. In this Review, the underlying physics of the stabilization of skyrmions at room temperature and their prospectives

• T. Fördös, H. Jaffrès, K. Postava, M. - S. Seghilani, A. Garnache, J. Pištora, H. - J. Drouhin, Eigenmodes of spin vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with local linear birefringence and gain dichroism. Phys. Rev. A. 96, 043828 (2017).
Abstract: We present a general method for the modeling of semiconductor lasers such as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser containing multiple quantum wells and involving anisotropies that may reveal (i) a local linear birefringence due to the strain field at the surface or (ii) a birefringence in quantum wells due to phase amplitude coupling originating from the reduction of the biaxial ${D}_{2d}$ symmetry group to the ${C}_{2v}$ symmetry group at the III-V ternary semiconductor interfaces. From a numerical point of view, a scattering S-matrix recursive method is implemented using a gain or amplification tensor derived analytically from the Maxwell-Bloch equations. It enables one to model the properties of the emission (threshold, polarization, and mode splitting) from the laser with multiple quantum well active zones by searching for the resonant eigenmodes of the cavity. The method is demonstrated on real laser structures and is presently used for the extraction of optical permittivity tensors of surface strain and quantum wells in agreement with experiments. The method can be generalized to find the laser eigenmodes in the most general case of circular polarized pumps (unbalance between the spin-up and spin-down channels) and/or dichroism allowing an elliptically polarized light emission as recently demonstrated experimentally when the linear birefringence is almost compensated [Joly et al., Opt. Lett. 42, 651 (2017)].
Tags: Semiconductors and Spintronics.

• R. Galceran, E. Gaufres, A. Loiseau, M. Piquemal-Banci, F. Godel, A. Vecchiola, O. Bezencenet, M. - B. Martin, B. Servet, F. Petroff, B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, Stabilizing ultra-thin black phosphorus with in-situ-grown 1 nm-Al2O3 barrier. Applied Physics Letters. 111, 243101 (2017).
Abstract: Exfoliated black phosphorus is a 2D semiconductor with promising properties for electronics, spintronics, and optoelectronics. Nevertheless, its rapid degradation in air renders its integration and use in devices particularly challenging—even more so for smaller thicknesses for which the degradation rate is tremendously enhanced. In order to effectively protect the thinnest flakes, we present here an approach based on an in-situ dielectric capping to avoid all contact with air. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies confirm that 1 nm of Al2O3 efficiently passivates exfoliated black phosphorus (below 5 layers) on Si/SiO2 substrates. Such an ultrathin and transparent passivation layer can act as a tunnel barrier allowing for black phosphorus devices processing without passivation layer removal.

• M. Geahel, I. Jouanny, D. Gorse-Pomonti, M. Poirier-Quinot, J. Briatico, C. - J. van der Beek, Edge Contamination, Bulk Disorder, Flux Front Roughening, and Multiscaling in Type II Superconducting Thin Films. Condensed Matter. 2, 27 (2017).
Abstract: We have investigated the effect of different types of disorder on the propagation, roughness, and scaling properties of magnetic flux fronts in a type II superconductor. A progression from the usual (Kardar–Parisi–Zhang-type) scaling to multiscaling is observed as the disorder strength is increased. A hierarchy of disorder strengths is established for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 − δ thin films. The results cast light on the physical origin of the roughening of flux fronts, and they are of interest for the design and elimination of flux noise in microscopic superconducting thin-film devices.
Tags: Supra.

• J. Gonzalez Sutter, L. Neñer, H. Navarro, G. Leyva, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, N. Haberkorn, M. Sirena, Oxygen influence in the magnetic and the transport properties of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures. Thin Solid Films. 639, 42 (2017).
Abstract: Oxygen vacancies in oxides nanostructures are the origin of many intriguing phenomena. We have studied the influence of the oxygen pressure in the tunneling properties of a ferroelectric barrier, Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 (BSTO), grown over a ferromagnetic electrode. A phenomenological model description was used to obtain critical information about the structure and electrical properties of ultra-thin BSTO layers using conductive atomic force microscopy. The BSTO layers present good insulation properties. Reducing the oxygen content increases the conductivity of the samples. The tunneling of the current carriers is probably the main conduction mechanism for samples with higher barrier thicknesses.

• I. Gross, W. Akhtar, V. Garcia, L. J. Martínez, S. Chouaieb, K. Garcia, C. Carrétéro, A. Barthélémy, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, J. - V. Kim, J. - Y. Chauleau, N. Jaouen, M. Viret, M. Bibes, S. Fusil, V. Jacques, Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer. Nature. 549, 252–256 (2017).
Abstract: Although ferromagnets have many applications, their large magnetization and the resulting energy cost for switching magnetic moments bring into question their suitability for reliable low-power spintronic devices. Non-collinear antiferromagnetic systems do not suffer from this problem, and often have extra functionalities: non-collinear spin order may break space-inversion symmetry and thus allow electric-field control of magnetism, or may produce emergent spin–orbit effects that enable efficient spin–charge interconversion. To harness these traits for next-generation spintronics, the nanoscale control and imaging capabilities that are now routine for ferromagnets must be developed for antiferromagnetic systems. Here, using a non-invasive, scanning single-spin magnetometer based on a nitrogen–vacancy defect in diamond, we demonstrate real-space visualization of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order in a magnetic thin film at room temperature. We image the spin cycloid of a multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin film and extract a period of about 70 nanometres, consistent with values determined by macroscopic diffraction. In addition, we take advantage of the magnetoelectric coupling present in BiFeO3 to manipulate the cycloid propagation direction by an electric field. Besides highlighting the potential of nitrogen–vacancy magnetometry for imaging complex antiferromagnetic orders at the nanoscale, these results demonstrate how BiFeO3 can be used in the design of reconfigurable nanoscale spin textures.

• F. Hellman, A. Hoffmann, Y. Tserkovnyak, G. Beach, E. Fullerton, C. Leighton, A. - H. MacDonald, D. - C. Ralph, D. - A. Arena, H. Dürr, P. Fischer, J. Grollier, J. - P. Heremans, T. Jungwirth, A. - V. Kimel, B. Koopmans, I. - N. Krivorotov, S. - J. May, A. Petford-Long, J. - M. Rondinelli, N. Samarth, I. - K. Schuller, A. - N. Slavin, M. D. Stiles, O. Tchernyshyov, A. Thiaville, B. - L. Zink, Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism. Reviews of Modern Physics. 89, 025006 (2017).
Abstract: This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin-transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange-spring magnets, the spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and noncollinear spin textures, nonlinear dynamics including spin-transfer torque and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.

• A. Joly, G. Baili, M. Alouini, J. - M. George, I. Sagnes, G. Pillet, D. Dolfi, Compensation of the residual linear anisotropy of phase in a vertical-external-cavity-surface-emitting laser for spin injection. Opt. Lett., OL. 42, 651–654 (2017).
Abstract: We report on the compensation of the linear anisotropy of phase in a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser from 21 to 0.5 mrad with an intracavity PLZT electro-optical ceramic. It allows dynamic and accurate control of the laser linear anisotropy, as well as dynamic control of the laser polarization eigenstates. At the birefringence compensation point, we observe an elliptical polarization state with 41° of ellipticity, rotated from its initial position of 32°. The experimental observations are in close agreement with the theoretical predictions. Finally, we are able to demonstrate control of the polarization state with spin injection.

• J. - V. Kim, M. - W. Yoo, Current-driven skyrmion dynamics in disordered films. Applied Physics Letters. 110, 132404 (2017).
Abstract: A theoretical study of the current-driven dynamics of magnetic skyrmions in disordered perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films is presented. The disorder is simulated as a granular structure, in which the local anisotropy varies randomly from grain to grain. The skyrmion velocity is computed for different disorder parameters and ensembles. Similar behavior is seen for spin-torques due to in-plane currents and the spin Hall effect, where a pinning regime can be identified at low currents with a transition towards the disorder-free case at higher currents, similar to domain wall motion in disordered films. Moreover, a current-dependent skyrmion Hall effect and fluctuations in the core radius are found, which result from the interaction with the pinning potential.

• M. Kreissig, R. Lebrun, F. Protze, K. - J. Merazzo, J. Hem, L. Vila, R. Ferreira, M. - C. Cyrille, F. Ellinger, V. Cros, U. Ebels, P. Bortolotti, Vortex spin-torque oscillator stabilized by phase locked loop using integrated circuits. AIP Advances. 7, 056653 (2017).
Abstract: Spin-torque nano-oscillators (STO) are candidates for the next technological implementation of spintronic devices in commercial electronic systems. For use in microwave applications, improving the noise figures by efficient control of their phase dynamics is a mandatory requirement. In order to achieve this, we developed a compact phase locked loop (PLL) based on custom integrated circuits (ICs) and demonstrate that it represents an efficient way to reduce the phase noise level of a vortex based STO. The advantage of our approach to phase stabilize STOs is that our compact system is highly reconfigurable e.g. in terms of the frequency divider ratio N, RF gain and loop gain. This makes it robust against device to device variations and at the same time compatible with a large range of STOs. Moreover, by taking advantage of the natural highly non-isochronous nature of the STO, the STO frequency can be easily controlled by e.g. changing the divider ratio N.

• P. Laczkowski, Y. Fu, H. Yang, J. - C. Rojas-Sanchez, P. Noel, V. T. Pham, G. Zahnd, C. Deranlot, S. Collin, C. Bouard, P. Warin, V. Maurel, M. Chshiev, A. Marty, J. - P. Attane, A. Fert, H. Jaffrès, L. Vila, J. - M. George, Large enhancement of the spin Hall effect in Au by side-jump scattering on Ta impurities. Phys. Rev. B. 96, 140405 (2017).
Abstract: We present measurements of the spin Hall effect (SHE) in AuW and AuTa alloys for a large range of W or Ta concentrations by combining experiments on lateral spin valves and ferromagnetic-resonance/spin-pumping techniques. The main result is the identification of a large enhancement of the spin Hall angle (SHA) by the side-jump mechanism on Ta impurities, with a SHA as high as $+0.5$ (i.e., $50%$) for about 10% of Ta. In contrast, the SHA in AuW does not exceed $+0.15$ and can be explained by intrinsic SHE of the alloy without significant extrinsic contribution from skew or side-jump scattering by W impurities. The AuTa alloys, as they combine a very large SHA with a moderate resistivity (smaller than $85\textbackslashphantom{\textbackslashrule{0.28em}{0ex}}\textbackslashensuremath{\textbackslashmu}\textbackslashmathrm{\textbackslashensuremath{\textbackslashOmega}}\textbackslashphantom{\textbackslashrule{0.16em}{0ex}}\textbackslashtext{cm}$), are promising for spintronic devices exploiting the SHE.

• R. Lebrun, J. Grollier, F. Abreu Araujo, P. Bortolotti, V. Cros, A. Hamadeh, X. de Milly, Y. Li, G. De Loubens, O. Klein, S. Tsunegi, H. Kubota, K. Yakushiji, A. Fukushima, S. Yuasa, Driven energy transfer between coupled modes in spin-torque oscillators. Phys. Rev. B. 95, 134444 (2017).
Abstract: The mutual interaction between the different eigenmodes of a spin-torque oscillator can lead to a large variety of physical mechanisms from mode hopping to multimode generation, that usually reduce their performances as radio-frequency devices. To tackle this issue for the future applications, we investigate the properties of a model spin-torque oscillator that is composed of two coupled vortices with one vortex in each of the two magnetic layers of the oscillator. In such double-vortex system, the remarkable properties of energy transfer between the coupled modes, one being excited by spin transfer torque while the second one being damped, result into an alteration of the damping parameters. As a consequence, the oscillator nonlinear behavior is concomitantly drastically impacted. This efficient coupling mechanism, driven mainly by the dynamic dipolar field generated by the spin transfer torque induced motion of the vortices, gives rise to an unusual dynamical regime of self-resonance excitation. These results show that mode coupling can be leveraged for controlling the synchronization process as well as the frequency tunability of spin-torque oscillators.

• R. Lebrun, S. Tsunegi, P. Bortolotti, H. Kubota, A. S. Jenkins, M. Romera, K. Yakushiji, A. Fukushima, J. Grollier, S. Yuasa, V. Cros, Mutual synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through a long-range and tunable electrical coupling scheme. Nature Communications. 8, 15825 (2017).
Abstract: The spintronics based complex network is promising for next generation computing systems but hampered by short-range spin-wave coupling. The authors make progress by achieving long range and tunable mutual synchronization of two spin-torque oscillators with improved emission
Tags: Spinorbitronics.

• W. Legrand, D. Maccariello, N. Reyren, K. Garcia, C. Moutafis, C. Moreau-Luchaire, S. Collin, K. Bouzehouane, V. Cros, A. Fert, Room-Temperature Current-Induced Generation and Motion of sub-100 nm Skyrmions. Nano Lett. 17, 2703–2712 (2017).
Abstract: Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale windings of the spin configuration that hold great promise for technology due to their topology-related properties and extremely reduced sizes. After the recent observation at room temperature of sub-100 nm skyrmions stabilized by interfacial chiral interaction in magnetic multilayers, several pending questions remain to be solved, notably about the means to nucleate individual compact skyrmions or the exact nature of their motion. In this study, a method leading to the formation of magnetic skyrmions in a micrometer-sized track using homogeneous current injection is evidenced. Spin-transfer-induced motion of these small electrical-current-generated skyrmions is then demonstrated and the role of the out-of-plane magnetic field in the stabilization of the moving skyrmions is also analyzed. The results of these experimental observations of spin torque induced motion are compared to micromagnetic simulations reproducing a granular type, nonuniform magnetic multilayer in order to address the particularly important role of the magnetic inhomogeneities on the current-induced motion of sub-100 nm skyrmions for which the material grains size is comparable to the skyrmion diameter.
Tags: Spinorbitronics.

• Y. Li, X. de Milly, F. Abreu Araujo, O. Klein, V. Cros, J. Grollier, G. De Loubens, Probing Phase Coupling Between Two Spin-Torque Nano-Oscillators with an External Source. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 247202 (2017).
Abstract: Phase coupling between auto-oscillators is central for achieving coherent responses such as synchronization. Here we present an experimental approach to probe it in the case of two dipolarly coupled spin-torque vortex nano-oscillators using an external microwave field. By phase locking one oscillator to the external source, we observe frequency pulling on the second oscillator. From coupled phase equations we show analytically that this frequency pulling results from concerted actions of oscillator-oscillator and source-oscillator couplings. The analysis allows us to determine the strength and phase shift of coupling between two oscillators, yielding important information for the implementation of large interacting oscillator networks.
Tags: Spinorbitronics.

• S. Liang, H. Yang, P. Renucci, B. Tao, P. Laczkowski, S. Mc-Murtry, G. Wang, X. Marie, J. - M. George, S. Petit-Watelot, A. Djeffal, S. Mangin, H. Jaffrès, Y. Lu, Electrical spin injection and detection in molybdenum disulfide multilayer channel. Nature Communications. 8, 14947 (2017).
Abstract: MoS2 is a promising two-dimensional candidate for opto-electronic and spintronic applications. Here, the authors report electrical spin injection and detection in a few-layered MoS2 channel, demonstrating that the spin diffusion length is at least 235 nm in MoS2conduction band.
Tags: Semiconductors and Spintronics.

• X. Lin, L. Su, Z. Si, Y. Zhang, A. Bournel, Y. Zhang, J. - O. Klein, A. Fert, W. Zhao, Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene. Phys. Rev. Applied. 8, 034006 (2017).
Abstract: Manipulating spin current rather than electric current is considered a promising route to ultralow-power “beyond CMOS” devices. The authors propose a graphene-based demultiplexer that enables voltage-controlled distribution and propagation of pure spin current. Gate-driven pure spin current would allow multiple logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversion, for efficient long-distance transport, so this device could be a building block for reconfigurable spin-logic circuits.

• N. Locatelli, V. Cros, in Introduction to Magnetic Random-Access Memory, B. Dieny, R. B. Goldfarb, K. - J. Lee, Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781119079415.ch1/summary)p. 1–28.
Abstract: Spintronics is a merger of magnetism and electronics. It uses the spin of electrons in addition to their charge to obtain new properties and uses these properties in innovative devices. This chapter introduces three major spintronics phenomena, which form the basis of most spintronics devices: giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, and spin-transfer torque.

• S. Menshawy, A. S. Jenkins, K. J. Merazzo, L. Vila, R. Ferreira, M. - C. Cyrille, U. Ebels, P. Bortolotti, J. Kermorvant, V. Cros, Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector. AIP Advances. 7, 056608 (2017).
Abstract: Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf) detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs). In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.

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